How Does Diet affect the Intestinal Flora?


Diet plays a large role in the composition of the microbiome, which varies greatly between vegetarian and predominantly carnivorous communities and individuals. 카지노사이트

The gut microbiome includes all of the genes contained in the 100 trillion microbes that inhabit the surface of the human digestive system. They are mostly commensals with some potential or opportunistic pathogens.

The Western diet causes an altered gut microbiome (GMB) profile compared to that found in farming communities in Africa, for example. Such changes result in alterations in host metabolism and immune response pathways, ultimately affecting human health. GMB is known to be involving in the pathogenesis of many disease states including obesity type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Human GMB is dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The former are gram positive and the latter are gram negative. There are several enterotypes or categories of the microbiome, each enriched with specific types of bacteria.

They are determined by the ratio of certain genera, or the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria to facultative anaerobes.

Dietary Change and GMB

Major dietary changes result in large changes in GMB composition in a single day. However, when the new regime is terminated, the pattern returns within 48 hours. Elevated levels of fat or sugar in the diet tend to disrupt the circadian rhythm. Again, severe systemic inflammation or stress can lead to acute injury within 24 hours. long-term immigrants to the United States have a four-fold risk of obesity associated with a 10-fold reduction in the ratio of Prevotella (fiber breakers) to Bacteroides. This development is directly proportional to the duration of immigration.

Proteins and GMB

Increasing protein intake is associated with increased microbial diversity. Consumption of light plant and animal proteins such as legumes and whey leads to an increase in commensals such as Bifidobacterium (butyrate producer) and Lactobacillus. In addition, whey reduces pathogens such as Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens, while legumes boost the production of SCFA.

With plenty of beef or other animal protein in the diet, GMB is enriched in anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides, Alistipes, Bilophila and Clostridia, but less than raw vegetarian Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

Roseburia and Eubacterium rectale levels are low on a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. Low levels of E. rectum have been found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These findings could explain the association of a high intake of animal protein with an increased risk of IBD. 온라인카지노사이트

Fats and the Microbiome

Western diets are generally high in saturated and trans fats, but heart-healthy diets are low in mono- and polyunsaturated fats. High dietary fat levels are associated with higher abundances of anaerobes and Bacteroides, Clostridiales and Enterobacteriales, resulting in higher production of propionate and acetate but lower production of Lactobacillus in the gut.

The latter is negatively associated with weight gain in rats. Saturated fats are associated with a higher incidence of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Conversely, a low-fat diet increases bifidobacterium, which leads to a reduction in fasting blood sugar and total cholesterol. These fat-related changes are also associated with metabolic inflammation and insulin sensitivity.

Carbohydrates and Microflora

Easily digestible sugars and starches are broken down by enzymes in the small intestine. Increasing blood sugar and thereby increasing insulin secretion. Dates, rich in glucose, fructose and sucrose, increase the proportion of bifidobacteria but reduce bacteroids. The addition of lactose also causes a decrease in clostridia with an increase in SCFA. High carbohydrate diets have been linking to increases in the yeast Candida albicans and the methanogen Methanobrevibacter.

Eliminating dairy products, alcohol, salted and fatty meats, simple starches and sugars resulted in healing of Candida overgrowth in 85% of patients treated with nystatin, but only in 42% of patients taking nystatin alone. Lactose therefore has a beneficial effect on GMB. On the other hand, due to gut dysbiosis, artificial sweeteners induce more glucose intolerance than natural sugars, namely glucose and sucrose, raising questions about their use.

Probiotics and the Microbiome

Microbes that can be eaten to improve gut health and to prevent or treat IBD are commonly found in fermented foods like yogurt and fermented milk and are referred to as probiotics. These microbes affect the GMB by modulating inflammation.

In particular, they increase the number of bifidobacteria and/or lactobacilli while reducing the number of E.coli and total very low and low density cholesterol. At the same time, they are associated with improving insulin sensitivity. Gastrointestinal intolerance is improving. By these products and higher serum IgA levels indicate a stronger antibody response.

Dietary patterns and the GMB

Furthermore, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are used to prevent travelers’ diarrhea. Western eating habits and diet are generally antagonistic to a healthy GMB, with decreases in Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium but increases in E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae.

Conversely, plant-based diets, whether vegan or vegetarian, favor Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides species. The Mediterranean diet has a favorable fatty acid profile due to its composition being high in whole grains and legumes, nuts, fruits and vegetables, seafood, poultry, olive oil and wine, and a small amount of red or processed meat, sweets and dairy products. 바카라사이트

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